L-TYROSINE 500mg [Amino acids]
L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that can be converted into L-DOPA and Dopamine in our brains.
The determining factor for the production of Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Epinephrine is the amount of free L-Tyrosine in the brains. When there is an insufficient level of free L-Tyrosine present in the brains, the synthesis of Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Epinephrine strongly decreases. This can lead to apathy, less concentration, impaired memory, scant alertness and overtiredness.
The level of L-tyrosine in our body depends partly on the supply of L-tyrosine in the diet, and also relies on the conversion of L-tyrosine from the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and is therefore only obtained through the food. An estimated 67 to 90% of Phenylalanine in food is converted into L-tyrosine.
L-tyrosine is therefore essential in case there is an insufficient supply of Phenylalanine.
Our current Western diet is very low in both Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine, causing them to be insufficiently present in the body which can lead to a decreased synthesis of Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Adrenaline.
Instructions for use
2x1 capsule 15min before breakfast.
Do not exceed the recommended daily dose.
Keep out of reach of young children.
Nutritional supplements should not replace a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
Children, pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding, consult your pharmacist before use.
Check with simultaneous intake of medicines.
No long-term use without professional advice.
Range of usage
CompositionIngredients per 2 vegetable capsules
L-tyrosine 1000mg, Vegetable capsule (Hypromellose), Anti-caking agents (Calcium carbonate, Magnesium silicate, Magnesium stearate, Silicon dioxide)
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McTavish SF et al. Lack of effect of tyrosine depletion on mood in recovered depressed women. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(4) (2005): 786-91. PMID 15702140.
Glaeser BS, Melamed E, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Elevation of plasma tyrosine after a single oral dose of L-tyrosine. Life Sci. 1979 Jul.16;25(3):265–71. PMID 481129. 10.? a b c d (en) van Spronsen FJ, van Rijn M, Bekhof J, et al. Phenylketonuria: tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:153-157. PMID 11157309.
Agharanya JC, Alonso R, Wurtman RJ. Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1981 Jan;34(1):82-7. PMID 7192489.
Gibson CJ, Wurtman RJ. Physiological control of brain catechol synthesis by brain tyrosine concentration. Biochem Pharmacol 1977;26:1137- 1142. PMID 19023.
Wurtman RJ, Larin F, Mostafapour S, Fernstrom JD. Brain catechol synthesis: control by brain tyrosine concentration. Science 1974;185:183-184. PMID 4276197.
Fernstrom JD, Fernstrom MH. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain. J. Nutr. 2007Jun.;137(6 Suppl 1):1539S–1547S–discussion1548S. PMID 17513421.
Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull 22(4) (1989): 759-62. PMID 2736402
Dollins AB, Krock LP, Storm WF, et al. L-tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress. Physiol Behav 1995;57:223-230. PMID 7716196
Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull 1994;33:319-323. PMID 8293316
Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviat Space Environ Med 1995;66:313-319. PMID 7794222
Shurtleff D, Thomas JR, Schrot J, et al. Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 47(4) (1994): 935-41. PMID 8029265
Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, et al. Tyrosine supplementation mitigates memory decrements during cold exposure. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 23;92(4):575-82. Epub 2007 May 22. PMID 17585971.
Thomas JR et al. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 64(3) (1999): 495-500. PMID 10548261.
Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF et al. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull. 1999 Jan.15;48(2):203–9. PMID 10230711 .
Gelenberg A, Wojcik JD, Gibson CJ, Wurtman RJ. Tyrosine for depression. J Psychiatr Res 1982- 1983;17:175-180. PMID 6764934.
Gelenberg AJ, Wojcik JD, Growdon JH, et al. Tyrosine for the treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:622-623. PMID 7369415
Goldberg IK. L-tyrosine in depression. Lancet 1980;2:364-365. PMID 6105492.
McLean A et al. The effects of tyrosine depletion in normal healthy volunteers: implications for unipolar depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 171(3) (2004): 286-97. PMID 12955284.
Roiser JP et al. The subjective and cognitive effects of acute tyrosine depletion in patients recovered from depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(4) (2005): 775-85. PMID 15688090.
Chadwick MJ, Gregory DL, Wendling G. A double-blind amino acids, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine, and placebo study with cocaine-dependent subjects in an inpatient chemical dependency treatment center. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 16(3-4) (1990): 275-86. PMID 2288326.
Galloway GP et al. A historically controlled trial of tyrosine for cocaine dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs 28(3) (1996): 305-9. PMID 8895116.
Wood DR, Reimherr FW, Wender PH. Amino acid precursors for the treatment of attention deficit disorder, residual type. Psychopharmacol Bull 1985;21:146-149. PMID 3885291.
Reimherr FW, Wender PH, Wood DR, Ward M. An open trial of L-tyrosine in the treatment of attention deficit disorder, residual type. Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:1071-1073. PMID 3300376.
McTavish SF, McPherson MH, Harmer CJ et al. Antidopaminergic effects of dietary tyrosine depletion in healthy subjects and patients with manic illness. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;179:356–60. PMID 11581118.
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